Stainless Steel Sheets & Plates

All you need to know about SS Sheet Plate

Among the various types of sheet metals available in the market the most versatile, affordable, and durable material is always “Stainless Steel”.

Stainless Steel sheets are super easy to work with. They are readily formed without any hassle due to their incredible malleability. Stainless Steel Sheets & Plates. are used for a wide range of applications right from huge industrial appliances up to small household appliances.

Here are the properties and benefits of Stainless Steel sheets you need to know about:

  1. Lustrous and Durable:

Stainless Steel alloys contain chromium which increases their strength and toughness significantly. Additionally, chromium plays a major role in giving stainless steel its anti-rust and anti-corrosive properties. The chromium content in association with the carbon content gives brilliant strength, durability, and resilience to the metal alloy.

  1. Thickness:

Stainless Steel metal sheets are highly malleable and thus can be quite thin. Sheet metals have a thickness of 0.25mm and SS plates have a thickness below 0.25mm. The sheet metal thickness uses a gauge as a size reference. The larger the gauge number thinner the sheet.

  1. Variety:

As we know, stainless steel has numerous grades due to the variety in alloying compositions. Common types and grades of stainless steel used include:

Stainless steel grade 200 series: The basic alloying composition of this series includes chromium, carbon, and manganese. This grade of SS can be hardened but does not have great corrosion-resistant properties.

Stainless Steel grade 300 series: This series of alloys are the most in-demand and widely used grades. They exhibit exceptional mechanical and physical properties. They are highly ductile, malleable, weldable, and most importantly corrosion resistant. The most commonly used grades from the 300 series are SS304 and SS316.

Martensitic Steel: Easily machined but not great at resisting corrosion.

Austenitic Steel: Brilliant Corrosion resistance.

Ferritic Steel: Ease of fabrication, moderate corrosion resistance.

Duplex: Amalgamation of Ferritic and Austenitic, twice the strength compared to austenitic grades.

Common applications of Stainless Steel Sheets:

  • Architecture
  • Construction
  • Automotive industry
  • Medical and Pharmaceutical
  • Food production
  • Energy generation

Weldability of Stainless Steel Plates and Sheets:

The thickness and uneven heat distribution are an obstacle when it comes to welding Stainless Steel Sheets and Plates. It is highly advised to heat the metal slowly and carefully as heating the sheet excessively can cause it to warp. The engineer carrying out the welding process needs to be highly educated about the specifications and tricks used to weld Stainless steel sheets and plates.

Cutting SS plates and Sheets:

High-end laser devices are used to cut these sheets. However, for manufacturers who wish to stick to medieval and primitive methodology tools such as snips, band saw, and jigsaws come in handy.

Bending Metal sheets and plates:

The bendability of the Stainless steel plate depends on its thickness. Thin plates can be bent using the force of the hand whereas thicker sheets require bending devices.

Carbon Steel Plate

What Does Intergranular Corrosion Mean

What Does Intergranular Corrosion Mean

Intergranular corrosion is the type of corrosion that attacks the boundaries of the metal crystallites, as opposed to attacking the surface of the metal. Intergranular Corrosion (IGC) can also be referred to as Intergranular Attack (IGA) under a condition known as grain boundary depletion. It can be defined as an attack along the boundaries of several grains in the metal or near the grain boundary with the largest portion of the grain remaining unaffected. Metals and alloys, like other elements, have micro-structures that can be described as grains. Metals can contain multiple grains, and these are separated by a grain boundary.

Although metal loss is minimal, IGC can cause the catastrophic failure of equipment. IGC is a common form of attack on alloys in the presence of corrosive media that results in the loss of strength and ductility. One should not mistake IGC with stress corrosion cracking (SCC). SCC requires stresses (residual or applied) to act continuously or cyclically in a corrosive environment producing cracks following an intergranular path.

Stainless steels and weld decay sensitization are the best examples of intergranular corrosion. Grain boundaries that are rich in chromium elements will precipitate lead. This makes the boundaries very vulnerable to corrosion attacks in various electrolytes. This is caused by reheating the part that has been welded, especially in multi-pass welding.

In the process of intergranular corrosion, a knife-like attack, a form of intergranular corrosion, can occur when carbon reacts with niobium, titanium or the austenitic stainless steels. Carbides form in the areas close the welded part, making it difficult for them to diffuse. This condition can be corrected by reheating the part to enable the carbides to diffuse.

How Intergranular Corrosion Is Formed

The ICG localized corrosion at grain boundaries is caused by the anodic dissolution of areas weakened by the alloying elements, second phase precipitation or regions with isolated alloying or impurity elements. The remaining part of the exposed surface typically functions as the cathode, and large cathodic areas support the anodic dissolution process.

The cathode to anode ratio is generally greater than one. It depends on factors such as the volume fraction and distribution of electrochemically active phases, the distribution of detrimental alloying and impurity elements, and grain size.

The corrosion rate is dependent on the dominant corrosion mechanism, and factors such as the diffusion of species to or from the anodic front can govern the dissolution kinetics. A significant characteristic of IGC is the development of a relatively homogeneous and uniform depth of attack. The dissolution of grain boundaries causes the dislodging of grains, often referred to as grain dropping. Grain dropping is responsible for most of the weight loss observed after IGC exposure, and corrosion rates can therefore be several orders of magnitude higher than during general corrosion.

Copper Nickel Pipes

Applications And Advantages Of Copper Pipes

Copper pipe is a versatile product with its high strength, superior corrosion resistance, and outstanding thermal efficiency, as well as with the ability to conform to any kind of requirement, this makes it an almost ideal metal that is necessary for our daily life.

Advantages of Copper Pipe

  • They have high strength and exceptional thermal capabilities that are nearly 8 times greater than aluminum.
  • Copper Nickel Pipes can tolerate corrosion a great deal higher than maximum different metals.
  • Copper Pipe may be very sturdy and might manage the peculiarities of the climate well. It is unaffected via way of means ultraviolet radiation and does now no longer belch out dangerous poisonous gases withinside the case of a fire because it has advanced resistance to burning.
  •  Copper Pipe may be joined with solder to supply solid, long-lasting joints. Copper Pipe is environmentally sustainable and might effortlessly be recycled.

Automotive Industry

The superior resistance to corrosion and suitable machinability of these pipes meet increasing demands on safety and production optimization in the automotive industry. Automotive electrical and electronic components require laminated copper products for connectors, cable lugs, terminal blocks, relays, and drive motors.

Communications Equipment

  • Communication equipment The copper tube is the core of the so-called high-frequency coaxial cable used in telecommunications. Transmitting antennas for mobile telecommunications are equipped with these high-frequency coaxial cables. To ensure low loss transmission from the transmitter to the antenna mast and from the antenna to the Receiver, internal and outer conductors crafted from a tube, product of excessive conductivity styles of copper, are used.
  • Architecture- For generations, copper has been used withinside the layout of roofs and facades. Besides the cultured aspects, concerns of the financial system and the choice for natural, environment–pleasant substances result in the selection of copper. The sturdiness of copper, its appeal, and its true processing features have made it a crucial factor in discerning architecture.
  • Building Products Made Of Copper Tubes Copper tubes are of widespread price for the building, engineering, and indoors finishing. The use of copper tubing in-home installations has a protracted history, and copper dealing with is one of the middle ideas of each traditional and new home setup technology. Hot and bloodless potable water, heating water, fuel line, liquid fuel line, and oil are transported correctly via copper pipes.
alloy-20-sheet-plates

Applications and Benefits of Alloy 20 Sheet Plate

Insights to Alloy 20 sheet plate

Alloy 20 Sheet plates are the standard products useful widely due to their wide range of properties and abilities. These are the products with nickel and chromium elements. The material is known as a super alloy due to its outstanding properties and skills.

Applications of Alloy 20 sheet plates

Alloy 20 shows outstanding properties that make these products useful to make sheet plates. Also, these products are applicable in solutions containing sulfuric acid and several others. Alloy 20 sheet plates help various industries such as chemical processing plants, oil refineries, and petrochemical unis, marine and submarine operations. Also, these sheet plates of Alloy 20 are useful in pharmaceutical and food processing plants as well. These products help end-use applications such as storage tanks, product mixing tanks, agitators, and pumps. Several industrial parts such as valves, food processing equipment, fasteners, or fittings are alloy 20. Besides, these plates apply to a maximum temperature of 1000°F.

Advantages of Alloy 20 sheet plates

Alloy 20 sheet plates have various advantages and are hence known as super alloy. The material is most useful in multiple industries due to the following advantages:

  • Corrosion-resistant-

Alloy 20 is a super alloy grade that offers a natural resistance against various working conditions. Additionally, the material quality works well at a high-temperature range with the presence of chloride and acids.

  • Affordable cost –

Alloy 20 sheet plates are available at a less high price compared to other products. These products work for a longer time and suitable for extreme conditions as well.

  • Sturdiness –

Alloy 20 sheet plates are the most robust product compared to any other products available in the market. These products are suitable for various applications due to its outstanding toughness and strength.

  • Weldability –

Alloy 20 sheet plates can work in extreme welding conditions, and hence many welders prefer to use them. Also, the material is unbreakable during welding, and less adheres to the exterior. For welding of these alloy 20 sheet plates, less expertise is required.

  • Adaptability –

Alloy 20 sheet plates are adaptable to various operating conditions and climates. These products work well in acidic, basic, or high temperature containing atmosphere as well.

  • Versatility –

Alloy 20 sheet plates show outstanding versatility and hence suitable in various product formations.

Due to the above-explained advantages and benefits, Alloy 20 sheet plates are useful in various industries.

410S Cold Rolled Plates

All about Stainless Steel Grade 410S Cold Rolled Plates

What is Stainless Steel 410S Plates? 

These are the extensive range of products has outstanding features and offers good quality. Stainless Steel Grade 410S Cold Rolled Plates are suitable for long term operations and require less maintenance. For the production of Stainless Steel Grade 410S Cold Rolled Plates, various procedures and steps are essential. Steps like spinning, roll forming, and bending works well to create Stainless Steel Grade 410S Cold Rolled Plates. Also, it requires high tech machinery to produce products of international standards and high quality. For the production of Stainless Steel Grade 410S Cold Rolled Plates, various procedures are performed on the plate, including plasma cutting, high definition plasma cutting, plasma beveling, abrasive water jet cutting, and band saw cutting. Also, a procedure like a laser cutting works well for these plates.

Properties of Stainless Steel Grade 410S Cold Rolled Plates

Here, Stainless Steel Grade 410S is a low carbon-containing alloy that has the non-hardening ability. The material contains 12% chromium, and the low carbon makes the product suitable for high temperature working. Also, the well-defined composition of stainless steel grade makes cold-rolled plates restrict hardening. Stainless Steel Grade 410S is soft and ductile after performing rapid cooling from varied temperature scale. Stainless Steel Grade 410S material’s various characteristics help them prevent their cracking after exposure to high temperature and welding. Stainless Steel Grade 410S Cold Rolled Plates exhibits adequate corrosion resistance and good oxidation resistance.

  • Corrosion resistance ability

Stainless Steel Grade 410S Cold Rolled Plates resists corrosion in varied atmospheric conditions, including freshwater, mild organic acids, and minerals. Even these products work well after exposure to chlorides.

  • Heat Treatment capacity

Stainless Steel Grade 410S Cold Rolled Plates are not suitable for hardening by heat treatment. The raw material grade is processed in the temperature range of 1600 to 1650°F and then air-cooled to relieve cold working stresses.

Other properties of Stainless Steel

Grade 410S Cold Rolled Plates

 Stainless Steel Grade 410S Cold Rolled Plates are the product has outstanding physical and mechanical properties. Here are the set of mechanical properties including tensile strength, yield strength, elongation ability and hardness.

All You Need to Know About Alloy Steel ASTM A387

All You Need to Know About Alloy Steel ASTM A387

What is Alloy Steel ASTM A387?

Here, ASTM A387 is the technical delivery standard covering the supply of chromium and molybdenum and works well for pressure vessel steel products. Here, Alloy Steel ASTM A387 is a material grade that consists of elements like chromium and molybdenum. These elements from Alloy Steel ASTM A387 offers the ability to work in higher temperature and pressure conditions. Also, it makes products tensile with good mechanical strength. Alloy Steel ASTM A387 consists of manganese, silicon, which makes these products more robust, more rigid, heat resistant, and weldable along with chromium and molybdenum.

Alloy Steel ASTM A387 Grade 5 Class 1 Plate 

Here, ASTM A387 GRADE 5 Class 1 Plate is also known as chromium and molybdenum alloy steel plate. These are the products suitable specifically for elevated temperatures and pressure vessels. These plates are useful in weldable carbon steel pressure vessels. The additional amount of molybdenum offers ASTM A387 GRADE 5 Class 1 plate high tensile strength. Besides, the presence of chromium gives improved corrosion resistance to ASTM A387 GRADE 5 Class 1 plate. 

What are the features of Alloy Steel ASTM A387?

Alloy Steel ASTM A387 is an excellent choice for operations requiring elevated temperature. ASTM A387 works as an ideal choice for the fabrication of weldable products. Alloy Steel ASTM A387 is a grade that is suitable for machining and welding procedures. There are two different grades of Alloy Steel ASTM A387 that involves various grades such as 5, 9, 11, 22, and 91. 

The durability of Alloy Steel ASTM A387 is due to its composition and uniform structure. the material grade is suitable in the process of annealing and normalizing. Alloy Steel ASTM A387 is weldable and shows excellent malleability, and offers excellent forming properties. The material is relevant to convert into various forms and shapes through cutting and bending procedures. Alloy Steel ASTM A387 is high performing material that can deliver outstanding performance in an extreme environment. Hence, these materials are useful in valves, boilers, and pressure conditions. The superior surface finish does not allow cracking of the material.

What are the applications of Alloy Steel ASTM A387?

Alloy Steel ASTM A387 is a material suitable for pressure vessels and industrial boilers. Also, the material grade is ideal in the petrochemical and oil industry. ASTM A387 is a steel alloy that are ideal for welded elements that require high temperature.

Different factors used to identify Copper Nickel EEMUA 145 Flanges

Different factors used to identify Copper Nickel EEMUA 145 Flanges

Copper Nickel EEMUA 145 Flanges are available in different sizes and shapes from 1/2 inch to 36 inches. For the formation of these copper-nickel EEMUA 145 Flanges, various factors are considered, including drilling. During drilling, the external diameter of flanges and pressure conditions are considered. Copper Nickel is an alloy of multiple elements like nickel, iron, manganese, carbon, copper, zinc, sulphur, phosphorous, etc. These elements are present in varying proportions. Copper-nickel EEMUUA 145 flanges are the best flanges present in the market that offer superior tensile strength, dimension accuracy, robust structure, and outstanding corrosion and erosion resistance. The flanges of copper and nickel are useful in marine applications, ship construction, oil and gas, and chemical processing plants. Well-defined copper-nickel EEMUA flanges offer high efficiency even in harsh environments with varied temperature, turbulent flow, and high-pressure conditions. 

Different factors to consider 

Here, the following are the different factors taken into consideration while identifying copper-nickel EEMUA 145 flanges. Various factors include information about the copper-nickel grade, standard specification, benefits, classification or types, surface finishing, and applications.

Copper-nickel EEMUA 145 flanges are useful in a piping system that offers strength and works as a connecting point. These flanges are easy to maintain with less cleaning, moderation, and modification. 

Uses of Copper-nickel flanges 

These flanges are useful in various fields, including Shipbuilding, offshore mining, nuclear power generation plants, desalination plants, and food processing plants. These flanges help connect pipes and block sections of the piping system. Also, for end termination, Copper-nickel flanges work well. 

Standards for Copper-nickel Flanges

Various standards are available for quality analysis of copper-nickel EEMUA 145 flanges. These quality standards include EEMUA 145/EEMUA 234 standards. 

Benefits of copper-nickel EEMUA 145 flanges

These flanges are easy to maintain and install-uninstall as well. These flanges show secure flanging and durability to operation. They can be ideal for higher temperature, corrosion, and anti-fouling feature.

Features of copper-nickel EEMUA 145 flanges 

These flanges show various features and include high pressure and stress resistance ability, resistance to erosion, and outstanding heat transfer. Besides, they are resistant to biofouling.

The thickness of copper-nickel EEMUA 145 flanges

Thickness is an essential parameter taken into consideration while identifying copper-nickel EEMUA 145 flanges. The thickness determines the pressure holding capacity of flanges.

What is Cast Iron Soil Pipe

Hub & spigot and hubless are the two main styles of cast iron soil pipe and fittings used almost around the world. In the plumbing industry, hubless pipes and fittings are known as no-hub.

In accordance with CISPI 301, hubless cast iron soil pipe and fittings are produced without a hub. A metallic shielded hubless coupling, manufactured to CISPI 310, is used to connect the pipe and fittings. It telescopes over the plain ends of the pipe and fittings and is adjusted to seal the joint. Only one class of hubless cast iron soil pipe and fittings is made, and wall thicknesses differ depending on the size. Fittings come in a variety of configurations, and pipe and fittings vary in size from 1 1/2″ to 15″.

Many companies also provide metallic shielded couplings that is used in joining hubless pipe and fittings in these size ranges. Pipe and fittings with hubs have spigots (plain ends) into which the pipe or fitting’s spigot is installed. A thermoset elastomeric gasket or lead and oakum are used to secure the joint. Service (SV) and Extra Heavy (EH) hub and spigot pipe and fittings are available in two thickness groups (XH).

Extra Heavy (XH) has an additional wall thickness applied to the outside diameter, so Extra Heavy (XH) and Service (SV) are not interchangeable. Hub and Spigot pipe and fittings are made to ASTM A-74 standards and are available in sizes ranging from 2” to 15”. The Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute’s member companies sell Thermoset elastomeric gaskets, lubricant, and assembly equipment.

 

Ref: https://www.cispi.org/standards-specs/industry-specifications/
Copper Nickel 9010 Sheet & Plate

Copper Nickel 90/10 Sheet & Plate – Features and Applications

Copper is the metal that has outstanding resistance against corrosion in freshwater. Besides, copper, in combination with nickel, offers superior resistance to decline in seawater applications. Similarly, the alloy of the copper-nickel 90/10 offers the anti-fouling ability. In Copper-nickel 90/10 alloy, copper is present in 90%, and nickel is 10%. Additionally, Copper-Nickel 90 / 10 sheet and plate are an alloy containing strengthening elements such as iron and manganese. These elements add outstanding features to plates and sheets. The well-defined composition of the alloy makes them strong, ductile, and corrosion-resistant. 

Different qualities of Copper Nickel 90 / 10 Sheet & Plate

Cu-Ni 90/10 sheets and plates are available to offer many properties. The material is highly ductile and offers good resistance against corrosive environment. The anti-corrosive property of Cu-Ni makes them useful in coastal operations and various gas structure plants. 

The addition of nickel to copper enhances the strength and long-term operational ability of the product. They are resistant to erosion and cavitation in natural water. The alloy is immune to stress, cracking, and corrosion fatigue. The copper-nickel alloy’s anti-fouling ability makes these sheets and plates to use in marine and chemical environments, desalination plants, and heat exchange equipment. 

  • Machining ability of copper-nickel 90/10 alloy 

The products of copper-nickel 90/10, i.e., plates and sheets, hold good machining properties like other high-strength copper base material. 

  • Joining of copper-nickel 90/10 alloy 

Copper-nickel 90/10 sheets and plates are joined by using traditional welding procedures. Hence, the products of copper-nickel 90/10 undergo the fabrication process very quickly. 

Applications of Copper-nickel 90/10 sheet & plate 

In contrast, Cu-Ni 90/10 sheets and plates are manufactured in varied sizes and shapes to match different industries’ operational demands and conditions. These plates and sheets are useful in water services as well. Copper-nickel 90/10 plates and sheets are applicable in seawater and hydraulic pipelines, oil rigs, refineries, and fish farming cages. Besides, seawater intake screens are of copper-nickel 90/10. 

Seawater is a combination of various salts, elements, gases, and organic matter, which affects the different metals and parts. But here, copper-nickel features are resistant to seawater conditions. Hence, Copper-nickel 90/10 sheets and plates are useful in pipelines for handling seawater. These pipes are useful in power generation and desalination plants. These pipes help convey ballast, tank cleaning water, and stem purposes.